"The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) conducted a computer-based pilot writing assessment at grade 4 in 2012, based on the 2011 NAEP writing framework. A key question that this pilot assessment was designed to answer was whether or not fourth-graders could fully demonstrate their writing ability on a computer. To address this question, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) conducted the present study. Approximately 10,400 fourth-graders from about 510 schools (420 public and 90 private) composed responses to writing tasks reflecting three purposes of writing: to persuade or change the reader's point of view, to explain or broaden the reader's understanding of a topic, and to convey an experiencereal or imaginary. Fulfillment of these purposes of writing required students to bring forth target skills related to language facility, development of ideas, and organization of ideas. The schools and students participating in this pilot assessment were selected to be representative of all schools nationally. In addition to the 2012 NAEP grade 4 pilot writing assessment data, this report also refers to the findings of a small-scale usability study conducted in 2011, as well as the 2010 NAEP grade 4 paper-based pilot writing assessment and the 2011 NAEP grade 8 and 12 computer-based writing assessments. "