This report reviews studies that have investigated the relationships between principal characteristics (including precursors, behaviors, and leadership styles) and student achievement. Only one experimental study examined a principal intervention designed to improve student achievement. It found that grade 8 students randomly assigned to have one-on-one conversations with the principal scored higher on the state English language arts test. An additional 38 quantitative and 2 mixed method studies provided mixed evidence of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement; 11 qualitative studies mirrored the quantitative findings.
Administration and Leadership