This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices, including the use of Spanish, English, and code-switching. The English language arts teacher adhered to strict language separation as dictated by the TWDL model, while the Spanish language arts teacher instructed in both English and Spanish to accommodate standardized test preparation. Students enacted agency to engage in their hybrid language practices. Despite the multiplicity and, at times, contradictory ideologies embodied and articulated by both teachers, the overarching dominant language ideology of English superiority was present and powerful. We discuss implications for dual language implementation, including the role of standardized testing, students as language policy makers, and teacher (mis)alignment between articulated and embodied ideologies.
Dual Language Programs