Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contextsthe home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schoolsthis article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context. Specifically, the review finds that in the home context, parents' practices in HL maintenance are complicated by factors such as parents' attitudes and beliefs about language maintenance and literacy resources. While community language schools have been recognized as the strongest efforts for teaching HLs, these schools often face various challenges in getting the human and physical resources they need. Finally, the review reveals the lack of a supportive environment for HL maintenance in K-12 schools. The findings suggest an urgent need for realignment among federal policies, mainstream school curricular, and community practices in order to maximize the full potential of the United States becoming multilingual in a globalized society.
Home Environment and Language Practices
Family and Community Involvement