Dramatic increases have occurred in the number of children who speak languages other than English at home in the United States and English language learners (ELLs) need support both for becoming proficient in English and for maintaining their first language. In this paper, five types of bilingual education implemented in the United States are reviewed: submersion, English as a second language instruction; transitional bilingual education; maintenance bilingual education; two-way immersion (TWI), with TWI programs being the focus for most of the paper. A brief history of the policy evolution of bilingual education in the United States is provided. Research reviewed suggests that compared to students exposed to other programs, students in TWI programs are better off in terms of achievement and in L1 and L2 development. Although benefits of TWI programs are demonstrated, limitations of the current research also exist, and are discussed. Challenges implementing TWI programs are discussed and policy recommendation are included.
Structured English Immersion