In this article the author shares examples of reading conferences with 10 English learners over the course of a semester. The reading conferences are conducted by four monolingual, European-American teachers at a primary school in the Southeastern United States. Sociocultural and identity theories are used as a theoretical frame for the research study. Observations of the reading conferences reveal several themes inhibiting the literacy learning of English learners: lack of self-correction opportunities, unbalanced instruction, metalanguage, text difficulty, and book levels. In addition, the conferences with English learners are compared to native-speaking students in a cross-case analysis. Transcripts illustrate the complex factors affecting the learning and identity formation process for English learners. The author offers suggestions for reframing reading conferences with English learners.