National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, DC.
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Educational reform efforts of the last twenty years have resulted in two distinct national movements or tracks. The first track, which is focused on efforts to decentralize the public education bureaucracy, is characterized by site-based decision making, mastery of the basic skills, and educational choice or the voucher system. The second track is focused on efforts to standardize what is taught in the public schools. The most prominent components of this reform track are national standards and goals for students, a national system of examination for students, and a national certification process for teachers.