English Literacy Development: Approaches and Strategies That Work With Limited English Proficient Children and Adults. New Focus, n12 Sum 1989.
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A review of the literature reveals continuing variation in methods of teaching literacy to limited English proficient children and adults. Literacy itself is defined in various ways, and students' different levels of native-language literacy and "literacy awareness" affect their preparedness for becoming literate in English. Many students are still being taught reading by the phonics method and writing by the grammar-based method. However, these skills-based approaches are less effective than the whole language approach and Language Experience Approach for teaching limited English proficient learners. Students progress most rapidly when instruction is functional in content, incorporates the culture and experience of the learner, and allows for individual differences related to age and native-language literacy. (cas)